Linux tips and tricks for all users.

Mounting an ISO image with the command line and other useful commands.

Mounting an ISO image to a folder and accessing the contents of the image is very simple. Firstly we need to create a directory to mount the image to.

|{/mnt/Elements/Files/ISOs}-{Fri Mar 22 23:52:17}
-{john@adeptus-mechanicus } $ sudo mkdir /root/img
[sudo] password for john:

Then we can use the mount command to mount the ISO image as a loopback device.

|{/mnt/Elements/Files/ISOs}-{Fri Mar 22 23:55:47}
-{john@adeptus-mechanicus } $ sudo mount -o loop linuxmint-13-mate-dvd-64bit.iso /root/img
mount: warning: /root/img seems to be mounted read-only.

And then you may access the contents. It is mounted read-only, but you can copy files out of the ISO image if you wish.

{/mnt/Elements/Files/ISOs}-{Fri Mar 22 23:57:43}
-{john@adeptus-mechanicus } $ sudo ls -hula /root/img
total 2.4M
dr-xr-xr-x  9 root root 2.0K May 21  2012 .
drwx------ 12 root root 4.0K Mar  5 21:31 ..
dr-xr-xr-x  2 root root 2.0K May 21  2012 .disk
-r--r--r--  1 root root  185 May 20  2012 autorun.inf
dr-xr-xr-x  3 root root 2.0K May 20  2012 boot
dr-xr-xr-x  2 root root 2.0K May 21  2012 casper
dr-xr-xr-x  3 root root 2.0K May 20  2012 efi
dr-xr-xr-x  2 root root 2.0K May 20  2012 install
dr-xr-xr-x  2 root root 2.0K May 20  2012 isolinux
-r--r--r--  1 root root  13K May 21  2012 md5sum.txt
-r-xr-xr-x  1 root root 2.3M May 21  2012 mint4win.exe
dr-xr-xr-x  2 root root 2.0K May 20  2012 preseed

Once you are done with the ISO image you may unmount it this way.

|{/mnt}-{Sat Mar 23 12:24:46}
-{john@adeptus-mechanicus } $ sudo umount /root/img 
[sudo] password for john:

The ps command is very useful for keeping track of your running processes. The Tron Legacy movie showed the real use of this command with the ps -ef | grep command to find a certain process. The command works exactly the same when used with Linux Mint Debian Edition and the bash shell.

john@debian-mint:~$ ps -ef | grep 2801
root      2801     1  0 20:30 ?        00:00:00 /usr/sbin/sshd
john      5592  5507  0 22:28 pts/0    00:00:00 grep 2801

The ps -ef command is used to find every running process on the system and output the data using standard syntax. Then the technician used the grep command to only output the rogue process he was looking for.

If you execute the ps -t command with a number as shown below; you may then see what processes are running on that tty.

john@debian-mint:~/Documents$ ps -t 7
  PID TTY          TIME CMD
 3205 tty7     00:03:47 Xorg

Of course the tty7 has Xorg running on my Linux Mint Netbook. And the command below will show all processes that are running as root.

john@debian-mint:~/Documents$ ps -U root -u root u
USER       PID %CPU %MEM    VSZ   RSS TTY      STAT START   TIME COMMAND
root         1  0.0  0.0   2280   732 ?        Ss   20:30   0:01 init [2]          
root         2  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [kthreadd]
root         3  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:03 [ksoftirqd/0]
root         5  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [kworker/0:0H]
root         7  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [kworker/u:0H]
root         8  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [migration/0]
root         9  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [rcu_bh]
root        10  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:03 [rcu_sched]
root        11  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [watchdog/0]
root        12  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [watchdog/1]
root        13  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [migration/1]
root        14  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:02 [ksoftirqd/1]
root        16  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [kworker/1:0H]
root        17  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [khelper]
root        18  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [kdevtmpfs]
root        19  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [netns]
root        20  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [bdi-default]
root        21  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [kintegrityd]
root        22  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [kblockd]
root        23  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [ata_sff]
root        24  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [khubd]
root        25  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [md]
root        26  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [devfreq_wq]
root        29  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [khungtaskd]
root        30  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [kswapd0]
root        31  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        SN   20:30   0:00 [ksmd]
root        32  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        SN   20:30   0:00 [khugepaged]
root        33  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [fsnotify_mark]
root        34  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [ecryptfs-kthrea]
root        35  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [crypto]
root        46  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [kthrotld]
root        49  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [binder]
root        68  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [deferwq]
root        69  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [charger_manager]
root       180  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [scsi_eh_0]
root       182  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [scsi_eh_1]
root       184  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [scsi_eh_2]
root       185  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [scsi_eh_3]
root       253  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [xfsalloc]
root       254  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [xfs_mru_cache]
root       255  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [xfslogd]
root       257  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [xfs-data/sda1]
root       258  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [xfs-conv/sda1]
root       259  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [xfs-cil/sda1]
root       262  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [kworker/0:1H]
root       263  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:30   0:00 [xfsaild/sda1]
root       390  0.0  0.0   3080  1644 ?        Ss   20:30   0:00 udevd --daemon
root       593  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [kpsmoused]
root       605  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [kworker/1:1H]
root       609  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [led_workqueue]
root       650  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [cfg80211]
root       660  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S<   20:30   0:00 [hd-audio0]
root      2287  0.1  0.0  29544  1940 ?        Sl   20:30   0:11 /usr/sbin/rsyslogd -c5
daemon    2373  0.0  0.0   2152   120 ?        Ss   20:30   0:00 /usr/sbin/atd
root      2392  0.0  0.0   3840   980 ?        Ss   20:30   0:00 /usr/sbin/cron
root      2560  0.0  0.0  10480   936 ?        Sl   20:30   0:00 /usr/sbin/pcscd
root      2561  0.0  0.0   5212  1056 ?        S    20:30   0:00 /usr/sbin/ntpd -p /var/run/ntpd.pid -g -u 111:122
root      2596  0.0  0.0   1932   604 ?        S    20:30   0:00 /bin/sh /usr/bin/mysqld_safe
root      2801  0.0  0.0   6464  1064 ?        Ss   20:30   0:00 /usr/sbin/sshd
root      2986  0.0  0.0   1852   552 ?        S    20:30   0:00 logger -t mysqld -p daemon.error
root      3017  0.0  0.2  19280  5016 ?        Ssl  20:30   0:02 /usr/sbin/NetworkManager
root      3127  0.0  0.1  18024  2868 ?        Sl   20:30   0:00 /usr/sbin/gdm3
root      3163  0.0  0.2  25996  4272 ?        Sl   20:30   0:02 /usr/lib/policykit-1/polkitd --no-debug
root      3193  0.0  0.2  20568  4148 ?        Sl   20:30   0:00 /usr/lib/gdm3/gdm-simple-slave --display-id /org/gnome/Displ
root      3204  0.0  0.1   6968  2776 ?        S    20:30   0:00 /usr/sbin/modem-manager
root      3205  2.5  0.5  32588 11300 tty7     Ss+  20:30   3:56 /usr/bin/Xorg :0 -br -verbose -novtswitch -auth /var/run/gdm
root      3234  0.0  0.1   5820  2664 ?        S    20:30   0:01 /sbin/wpa_supplicant -u -s -O /var/run/wpa_supplicant
root      3308  0.0  0.0   1848   296 ?        Ss   20:31   0:00 /usr/sbin/minissdpd -i 0.0.0.0
root      3331  0.0  0.0   3784   856 tty1     Ss+  20:31   0:00 /sbin/getty 38400 tty1
root      3332  0.0  0.0   3784   856 tty2     Ss+  20:31   0:00 /sbin/getty 38400 tty2
root      3333  0.0  0.0   3784   860 tty3     Ss+  20:31   0:00 /sbin/getty 38400 tty3
root      3334  0.0  0.0   3784   864 tty4     Ss+  20:31   0:00 /sbin/getty 38400 tty4
root      3335  0.0  0.0   3784   856 tty5     Ss+  20:31   0:00 /sbin/getty 38400 tty5
root      3336  0.0  0.0   3784   852 tty6     Ss+  20:31   0:00 /sbin/getty 38400 tty6
root      3441  0.0  0.1  23388  3052 ?        Sl   20:31   0:00 /usr/lib/accountsservice/accounts-daemon
root      3445  0.0  0.1  29032  3412 ?        Sl   20:31   0:00 /usr/sbin/console-kit-daemon --no-daemon
root      3542  0.0  0.1  27516  4024 ?        Sl   20:31   0:00 /usr/lib/upower/upowerd
root      3716  0.0  0.1  27916  4028 ?        Sl   20:31   0:00 gdm-session-worker [pam/gdm3]
root      3722  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    20:32   0:00 [kauditd]
root      3824  0.0  0.1  24276  3820 ?        Sl   20:32   0:01 /usr/lib/udisks/udisks-daemon
root      3825  0.0  0.0   6352   720 ?        S    20:32   0:02 udisks-daemon: polling /dev/sdb
root      5266  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    22:11   0:02 [kworker/0:2]
root      5583  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    22:26   0:00 [kworker/1:2]
root      5661  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    22:45   0:00 [flush-8:0]
root      5673  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    22:50   0:00 [scsi_eh_6]
root      5674  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    22:50   0:00 [usb-storage]
root      5679  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    22:50   0:00 [kworker/u:3]
root      5681  0.0  0.0   3076  1320 ?        S    22:50   0:00 udevd --daemon
root      5682  0.0  0.0   3076  1316 ?        S    22:50   0:00 udevd --daemon
root      5697  0.0  0.0   3160  1292 ?        Ss   22:50   0:00 /sbin/mount.ntfs /dev/sdb1 /media/Movies -o rw,nosuid,nodev,
root      5770  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    22:55   0:00 [kworker/1:0]
root      5792  0.1  0.0      0     0 ?        S    22:55   0:00 [kworker/u:0]
root      5826  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    22:59   0:00 [kworker/0:1]
root      5830  0.1  0.0      0     0 ?        S    23:00   0:00 [kworker/1:1]
root      5831  0.0  0.0      0     0 ?        S    23:01   0:00 [kworker/u:1]

Finally; here is an awesome command; this one prints out a lovely tree view of the running processes using Unicode characters.

john@debian-mint:~/Documents$ pstree -Upg
init(1,1)─┬─NetworkManager(3017,3017)───{NetworkManager}(3161,3017)
          ├─accounts-daemon(3441,2755)───{accounts-daemon}(3443,2755)
          ├─apache2(3926,3926)─┬─apache2(3927,3926)
          │                    └─apache2(3928,3926)─┬─{apache2}(3930,3926)
          │                                         ├─{apache2}(3931,3926)
          │                                         ├─{apache2}(3932,3926)
          │                                         └─{apache2}(3933,3926)
          ├─atd(2373,2373)
          ├─avahi-daemon(2960,2959)───avahi-daemon(2961,2959)
          ├─colord(3833,2755)───{colord}(3845,2755)
          ├─colord-sane(3850,2755)─┬─{colord-sane}(3852,2755)
          │                        └─{colord-sane}(5715,2755)
          ├─console-kit-dae(3445,2755)─┬─{console-kit-dae}(3446,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3447,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3448,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3449,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3450,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3451,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3452,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3453,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3454,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3455,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3456,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3457,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3458,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3459,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3460,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3461,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3462,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3463,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3464,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3465,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3466,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3467,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3468,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3469,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3470,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3471,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3472,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3473,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3474,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3475,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3476,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3477,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3478,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3479,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3480,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3481,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3482,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3483,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3484,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3485,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3486,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3487,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3488,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3489,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3490,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3491,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3492,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3493,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3494,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3495,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3496,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3497,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3498,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3499,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3500,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3501,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3502,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3503,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3504,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3505,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3506,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3507,2755)
          │                            ├─{console-kit-dae}(3509,2755)
          │                            └─{console-kit-dae}(3510,2755)
          ├─cron(2392,2392)
          ├─dbus-daemon(2755,2755)
          ├─dbus-daemon(3793,3793)
          ├─dbus-launch(3792,3738)
          ├─dconf-service(3865,3793)─┬─{dconf-service}(3866,3793)
          │                          └─{dconf-service}(3868,3793)
          ├─gconfd-2(3863,3793)
          ├─gdm3(3127,3126)─┬─gdm-simple-slav(3193,3126)─┬─Xorg(3205,3205)
          │                 │                            ├─gdm-session-wor(3716,3126)─┬─gnome-session(3738,3738)─┬─blueman-a+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─bluetooth+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─evolution+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─gdu-notif+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─gnome-fal+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─gnome-pan+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─gnome-scr+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─gnome-set+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─gnome-sou+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─gnome-use+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─metacity(+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─mintupdat+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─nm-applet+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─notificat+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─polkit-gn+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─ssh-agent+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─system-co+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─tracker-m+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─tracker-s+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─{gnome-se+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          ├─{gnome-se+
          │                 │                            │                            │                          └─{gnome-se+
          │                 │                            │                            ├─{gdm-session-wor}(3717,3126)
          │                 │                            │                            └─{gdm-session-wor}(3739,3126)
          │                 │                            └─{gdm-simple-slav}(3216,3126)
          │                 └─{gdm3}(3202,3126)
          ├─getty(3331,3331)
          ├─getty(3332,3332)
          ├─getty(3333,3333)
          ├─getty(3334,3334)
          ├─getty(3335,3335)
          ├─getty(3336,3336)
          ├─gnome-keyring-d(3720,3126)─┬─{gnome-keyring-d}(3721,3126)
          │                            ├─{gnome-keyring-d}(3799,3126)
          │                            ├─{gnome-keyring-d}(3802,3126)
          │                            ├─{gnome-keyring-d}(3805,3126)
          │                            ├─{gnome-keyring-d}(3958,3126)
          │                            ├─{gnome-keyring-d}(3994,3126)
          │                            └─{gnome-keyring-d}(3995,3126)
          ├─goa-daemon(3991,3793)───{goa-daemon}(4004,3793)
          ├─gsd-printer(3842,3738)───{gsd-printer}(3846,3738)
          ├─gvfs-afc-volume(3830,3793)───{gvfs-afc-volume}(3831,3793)
          ├─gvfs-gdu-volume(3822,3793)
          ├─gvfs-gphoto2-vo(3828,3793)
          ├─gvfsd(3811,3793)
          ├─gvfsd-burn(4223,3793)
          ├─gvfsd-metadata(4167,3793)
          ├─gvfsd-trash(4221,3793)
          ├─minissdpd(3308,3308)
          ├─mission-control(3979,3793)─┬─{mission-control}(3989,3793)
          │                            └─{mission-control}(3996,3793)
          ├─modem-manager(3204,2755)
          ├─mount.ntfs(5697,5697)
          ├─mysqld_safe(2596,2430)─┬─logger(2986,2430)
          │                        └─mysqld(2985,2430)─┬─{mysqld}(3037,2430)
          │                                            ├─{mysqld}(3038,2430)
          │                                            ├─{mysqld}(3039,2430)
          │                                            ├─{mysqld}(3040,2430)
          │                                            ├─{mysqld}(3041,2430)
          │                                            ├─{mysqld}(3042,2430)
          │                                            ├─{mysqld}(3043,2430)
          │                                            ├─{mysqld}(3044,2430)
          │                                            ├─{mysqld}(3045,2430)
          │                                            ├─{mysqld}(3046,2430)
          │                                            ├─{mysqld}(3198,2430)
          │                                            ├─{mysqld}(3199,2430)
          │                                            ├─{mysqld}(3200,2430)
          │                                            ├─{mysqld}(3201,2430)
          │                                            ├─{mysqld}(3232,2430)
          │                                            └─{mysqld}(3241,2430)
          ├─ntpd(2528,2528)───ntpd(2561,2528)
          ├─obex-data-serve(4016,3793)
          ├─pcscd(2560,2547)───{pcscd}(2562,2547)
          ├─polkitd(3163,2755)───{polkitd}(3196,2755)
          ├─portmap(1884,1884)
          ├─pulseaudio(3817,3816)─┬─{pulseaudio}(3818,3816)
          │                       └─{pulseaudio}(3819,3816)
          ├─rsyslogd(2287,2180)─┬─{rsyslogd}(2305,2180)
          │                     ├─{rsyslogd}(2306,2180)
          │                     └─{rsyslogd}(2307,2180)
          ├─rtkit-daemon(3676,2755)─┬─{rtkit-daemon}(3677,2755)
          │                         └─{rtkit-daemon}(3678,2755)
          ├─sshd(2801,2801)
          ├─udevd(390,390)─┬─udevd(5681,390)
          │                └─udevd(5682,390)
          ├─udisks-daemon(3824,2755)─┬─udisks-daemon(3825,2755)
          │                          ├─{udisks-daemon}(3826,2755)
          │                          └─{udisks-daemon}(3950,2755)
          ├─upowerd(3542,2755)─┬─{upowerd}(3543,2755)
          │                    └─{upowerd}(3544,2755)
          └─wpa_supplicant(3234,2755)

And the uname -r command is the best way to find your exact kernel version.

john@debian-mint:~/Documents$ uname -r
3.9.0-030900rc4-generic

The Linux distribution that I am using works very well when you are connected to a network. You can see other computers on a Windows network and shared folders. The only frustration is that sharing out a folder on Ubuntu 12.04 server and then viewing that shared folder with a Kubuntu 12.10 live DVD does not seem to work very well indeed. They need to make an Ubuntu distribution that includes all of the necessary Samba packages and other networking components. This would make it possible to load up the Live DVD discs on multiple computers and then test out an Ubuntu network. But I will just install the Ubuntu 12.10 distribution on the machine and then try to connect to the Ubuntu server. I did have the LAMP server role installed. This means that the machine can serve out a simple web page. I can see that just fine over the network in Firefox on Windows 7 but the Samba shares will not appear. I need to investigate this more and find a solution that may enable the sharing of files from a Linux server to a Windows network. Ubuntu does work very well though when you couple it with a Windows network.

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